Lungs, which are part of the respiratory system, are a couple of spongy, conical organs. The right lung consisting of three parts (lobes) is slightly larger than the left one consisting of two lobes. When we inhale, lungs take in the oxygen needed by our cells to live and to carry on with normal functions.
When we exhale, lungs remove carbon dioxide that is a waste material of body cells. Cancers originating in lungs are classified into two essential groups on the basis of their views under the microscope, namely non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancers (SCLC). Each lung cancer type tends to grow and proliferate in a different manner and therefore must be treated differently. Non-small cell lung cancer is more prevalent than small cell lung cancer and is slower in growth and proliferation. Small cell lung cancer has three main types named according to the type of cell where the cancer originates: squamous cell cancer (also called as epidermoid cancer), adenocarcinoma and large cell cancer. Small cell lung cancer is sometimes known as oat cell cancer and is less prevalent that the other type. This type of lung cancer grows more rapidly and tends to spread to other organs more frequently.
Diabetes (Diabetes Mellitus) is a common health issue in our country as in other parts of the world. Whereas the prevalence of diabetes in people aged 20 and over was found to be 7.2% in the TURDEP I Study (Prevalence of Diabetes, Hypertension, Obesity and Endocrinological Conditions in Turkey) carried out in 1997-1998, the results of the TURDEP-II study published in late 2010 suggest that the prevalence of diabetes in the same age group has reached 13.7%. Studies conducted serve to indicate that about 25% of diabetes patients are prone to suffer from ulcers in their feet during their lifetime and that 10-15% of these patients out of the entire diabetes patient population are still suffering from these ulcers. Foot ulcers due to diabetes decrease the quality of life of this patient group, result in amputation in different extents in the majority of cases, and cause high treatment costs.
There are two main reasons for the formation of foot ulcers in diabetes patients, namely nerve tissue disorder (neuropathy) and vascular insufficiency.
Anemia is a condition developing as a result of the reduction of the total number of red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin in erythrocytes, or both. Hemoglobin in red blood cells binds the oxygen and carries it from the lungs to tissues and organs. As oxygen is essential for cell viability, a reduction in the amount or function of red blood cells has numerous clinical consequences.
Anemia is the most commonly encountered blood disorder. There are many types of anemia with varying causes. Iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 are of critical importance for red blood cells. Iron deficiency may result in “iron deficiency anemia”. In this case, erythrocytes are smaller than normal and fail to function fully and successfully. Folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency cause erythrocytes become larger than normal and to dysfunction, which is called as “megaloblastic anemia”.
Neutropenia is the reduction in neutrophil count, which are important cells in the blood for the immune system. Neutrophils are basic cells consisting about 50-70% of white blood cells and fighting against bacteria. For this reason, neutropenia patients are more susceptible against potentially dangerous bacterial infections.
Neutropenia may have various different causes that can be classified as conditions preventing neutrophil production in the bone marrow, destruction of neutrophils in some part of the body and cases associated with the use of certain drugs. The cause of neutropenia must be established for successful treatment.