ANEMİA Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment
Anemia patients do not exhibit obvious signs. Many patients are not even aware that they are anemic. Patients generally suffer from fatigue, weakness, powerlessness, shortness of breath and tachycardia. Paleness in the skin, lips or nail folds may be observed..
Diagnosis is made by examining blood values in the laboratory. At first, values such as hemoglobin (HB), number of red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit (HCT), mean red blood cell volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW) are considered. After diagnosing anemia based on low HB, HCT and RBC values, the cause of anemia must be established. A definitive diagnosis may be possible after looking at the differences in the forms and sizes of erythrocytes.
When a chronic blood loss is suspected, the gastrointestinal tract may be examined via methods such as endoscopy and colonoscopy etc. For a differential diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia, various values such as the amount of iron in blood and the capacity of hemoglobin molecules to bind iron must be examined.
It is extremely important to establish and eliminate the underlying cause before starting treatment. In vitamin and iron deficiency, deficient vitamins and elements must be administered through oral route or via injections. Under normal conditions, blood transfusion is not recommended unless blood hemoglobin is below 7 g/dl. In cases of anemia encountered in late stages of chronic renal insufficiency, drugs increasing the production of erythropoietin, which stimulates blood formation, must be administered.